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Ashley Madison también reunía a homosexuales de países en los que ser abiertamente gay es un delito. En días pasados, en uno de los foros del sitio Reddit, un saudí manifestaba su temor a ser lapidado si sus coterráneos se enteran de que era usuario de Down Low, una sección de Ashley Madison para “hombres casados buscando a otros hombres para contacto casual, sin ataduras”. Una mujer obligó a su hija vegana de 16 años a cocinar carne como castigo, después de que la adolescente tirara comida que la madre había preparado para varios días. 40 años del hallazgo de Lucy, encuentro con un antepasado homínido. Hace 40 años, en Afar, Etiopía, el científico Donald Johnson encontró los restos de Lucy, un Astralophitecus afarensis que ... El 11 de marzo, el día que la OMS catalogó el COVID-19 como una pandemia, se reportaron cuatro nuevos casos: dos en la Ciudad de México y uno en Querétaro, todos ellos pacientes que habían regresado de un viaje a España y cuyas edades oscilan entre los 30 y 41 años. El caso restante es una mujer de 64 años de edad, del estado de México ... De media, las mujeres tienen más del doble de comentarios en su muro en Facebook y un 8 % más de “amistades” que los hombres. Una red social que cuenta con más hombres (24 %) que mujeres (19 %) es el sitio de contactos profesionales LinkedIn. Número de usuarias y usuarios en redes sociales Y de egoismo. Demostrado esta que comida podemos producir para bastantes mas de los que somos ahora. Lo que no es sostenible, es comer carne todos los dias, que todos tengan un coche para que cuando se aburran vayan donde quieran , esten viendo en streaming cada dia una peli distinta y saliendo a restaurantes todas las noches. Pero caber , cabemos. Lo que de verdad funciona en mi caso son las Instrucciones para Masturbarse (JOI, por sus siglas en inglés), un tipo de porno en el que alguien (usualmente una mujer), te da instrucciones ...
Resumen de r/Uruguay - 2020-08-30
2020.08.30 12:16 Samus_Resumen de r/Uruguay - 2020-08-30
2013.10.30 18:04 koine_linguaHow much "fallibility" are you willing to accept - from the evangelists, Paul, or even Jesus himself: and/or exactly how inspired were the earliest Christians?
[Please ignore this post's title; there was originally a lot more material relating to the title itself, but I've now removed it to make room for the stuff focusing purely on ancient interpretations of the age of the earth/humanity.] Jews and Christians from about the 3rd century BCE to the 3rd century CE virtually unanimously thought that the world was only a few thousand years old. Despite the odd outlier like Philo of Alexandria - who conceded that it was not possible to locate the precise date of creation - most extant writings we have from this period that address this issue do put forth an age for the universe/earth.
The earliest writer on this subject, Demetrius the Chronographer, calculates 3,624 years from the creation until Jacob went down to Egypt (at the request of Joseph): εἶναι δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἀδὰμ ἕως τοῦ εἰσελθεῖν εἰς Αἴγυπτον τοὺς τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ συγγενεῖς... We have no extant fragment of Demetrius on the period immediately after this. In terms of Biblical evidence itself, Gen 41:46 says Joseph was "30 years old when he entered the service of Pharaoh king of Egypt." (He dies at 110: Gen 50:26.)
Exodus 12:41: 430 years in Egypt (cf. Genesis 15:13).
Other chronological reckonings (both inner- and extra-Biblical) give between ~440 years (LXX 1 Kings 6:1; MT: 480) and ~600 years (Josephus, Against Apion 2.19: "Solomon himself built the sanctuary 612 years after the Judeans left Egypt"; cf. AJ 20.230, though 8.61 has 592 years) from the actual exodus itself until the time of Solomon. Africanus has an even higher number (744?). (Clement: "from Isaac to the grant of the promised inheritance, 616 years." Also see below on David.) Demetrius does, however, say that "From the time when the ten tribes were taken as prisoners from Samaria to Ptolemy IV, 573 years nine months." Ptolemy IV was ~220 BCE; but Demetrius was only ~50 years too long here, as the captivity is now dated ~740-730 BCE. After this, "from the time that the captivity from Jerusalem occurred [to Ptolemy IV] there were 338 years and three months." (338 years before Ptolemy IV, however, would give us 558 BCE: still 30 years after the "captivity of Jerusalem.") Since there were a little over 200 years between Solomon and the Assyrian captivity, we can suppose that Demetrius would have calculated something like 5,300-5,500 years (3,600 [until Jacob in Egypt] + ~500 [Jacob in Egypt + Egypt + wilderness] + 400-600 [exodus to Solomon] + 200 [Solomon to first captivity] + 600 [to Ptolemy IV]) from the creation until his time in the late 3rd century BCE. Jubilees:
2,450 years from creation to entry into Canaan (50 jubilees). To Moses in Jub. 50:4: "49 jubilees from the time of Adam until today, and one week and..."
This trajectory presupposes the destruction of the First Temple in 2940 am, which is the same dating of the event as in the Enochic Apocalypse of Weeks (6 ‘weeks’×490 years/‘week’ = 2940 years [1Enoch 93:8]).
. . .
the interval from Enoch’s entrance into the primeval Temple to the destruction of the First Temple (i.e., 7 ‘otot’ cycles) is the same as the time from the destruction of the First Temple to the establishment of the eschatological Temple on Mt. Zion (i.e., another 7 ‘otot’ cycles), thus putting the establishment of the eschatological Temple at 4998 am (2940+2058 years = 4998).
. . .
by the principle of rigorous symmetry, we may expect that the reentry into the Land takes place 490 years after the destruction of the First Temple, that is, in 3430 am (2940+490 = 3430) = 70 jubilees/490 weeks from the creation of the world. The same date marks the beginning of the restoration in the Enochic Apocalypse of Weeks (7 ‘weeks’×490 years/‘week’ = 3430 am [1Enoch 93:9–10]).
. . .
Jubilees’ highly schematic chronology appropriates essential elements from the equally schematic Enochic Apocalypse of Weeks (e.g., the all-important date for the destruction of the First Temple and the periodization in units of 490 years), while adapting the Apocalypse’s overall chronology to conform to a fundamentally different conception of history (e.g., one that is more pointedly ‘Enochic’ and priestly in orientation, more bilaterally symmetrical, and 980 [490×2] years longer [5880–4900 = 980]).
Alphonse Des Vignoles asserted in the preface to his Chronologie de l’Histoire Sainte (Chronology of Sacred History, Berlin 1738), that he collected upwards of two-hundred different calculations, the shortest of which reckons only 3483 years between the creation of the world and the commencement of the vulgar era and the longest 6984. Professor Fr. Arsenius John Baptist Vuibert (S.S.), a 19th-century historian, observed that Biblical Chronologies are uncertain due to discrepancies in the figures in Genesis and other methodological factors, accounting for hundreds of different chronologies being assigned by historians. In the case of the Fathers of the Sixth Ecumenical Council, who assigned 5509 BC. as the date of the creation of man, he writes that it was in response to the emperor's wishes to fix an era or convenient starting point for historical computation. Therefore, it was a decision of mere historical convenience, not respecting either faith or morals, which are what is truly of intrinsic value in the Scriptures. Having made this disclaimer, he settles on the Benedictine Chronology of 4963 BC for the purposes of his history.
Justin Martyr, 1 Apology 31:
προεφητεύθη δέ, πρὶν ἢ φανῆναι αὐτόν, ἔτεσι ποτὲ μὲν πεντακισχιλίοις, ποτὲ δὲ τρισχιλίοις, ποτὲ δὲ δισχιλίοις, καὶ πάλιν χιλίοις καὶ ἄλλοτε ὀκτακοσίοις· κατὰ γὰρ τὰς διαδοχὰς τῶν γενῶν ἕτεροι καὶ ἕτεροι ἐγένοντο προφῆται. And [we found predicted also] that He would send certain persons to every nation to make known these things, and that the former Gentiles rather [than Jews] would believe in Him. He was foretold, in truth, before He actually appeared, first five thousand years before,5 then three thousand, then two thousand, then one thousand, and, finally, eight hundred.
Epistle of Barnabas: "Therefore, my children, in six days, that is in 6000 years, the universe will be brought to its end."
Clement: "From Adam to the death of Commodus, 5784 years two months twelve days." Mosshammer writes that
Clement himself (Stromata 1. 21. 144) counted 5784 years from Adam to the death of Commodus in AD 212
(Yet Commodus died in 192? Clement had prefaced this by saying "The total from Augustus to the death of Commodus, 222." Augustus began to reign in 27 BCE, so 222 years after that would be ~195 CE. We can estimate, then, that for Clement creation was ~5590 BCE.) Clement mentioning Eupolemus:
Again, Eupolemus in a work of similar scope says that the total number of years from Adam to the fifth year of king Demetrius ( = the twelfth year of Ptolemy's reign in Egypt) comes to 5149 years.654
(This is Demetrius I Soter of Syria, who reigned 162-151 BCE. The fifth year is 157 BCE, and thus for Eupolemus, creation = 5,306 BCE.) Following this, Clement says (still quoting Eupolemus) that "From the point when Moses led the Jews out of Egypt to the same point comprises in all 1580 years." "The same point" being 157 BCE, this would place the year of the exodus ~1737 BCE. On a high estimate for Demetrius the Chronographer, there would have been ~1440 years (~40 + 600 + 200 [Solomon to first captivity] + ~600 [to Ptolemy]) from the exodus to the latter part of the 3rd century BCE, placing the former ~1,670 BCE; on a low estimate, ~1250 years, putting the exodus at 1,470 BCE.
Josephus says that according to Moses, there were 2,262 years (δισχιλίων διακοσίων ἑξηκονταδύο) from "the birth of Adam, the first man" until the flood (AJ 1.82). Apparently Eusebius, in the Chronicon, has 2,242. Clement of Alexandria has 2,148; and the Seder Olam (following the Hebrew tradition naturally) calculates a lower number of 1,656 years here, which is replicated in Genesis Rabbah 36. At the beginning of Against Apion, Josephus said that his Antiquities contains the "history of 5,000 years" (πεντακισχιλίων ἐτῶν ἀριθμὸν ἱστορίαν) (until his current time, in the late 1st century CE). Also, Clement:
(2) Flavius Josephus, the Jew, who compiled Researches into Jewish History, says in his chronology that from Moses to David is a period of 585 years, from David to the second year of Vespasian's reign 1179 years.684
(2) From Adam to the Flood comprises 2148 years four days; from Shem to Abraham, 1250 years; from Isaac to the grant of the promised inheritance, 616 years. (3) Then 640 from the Judges to Samuel, 463 years seven months. (4) After the Judges 572 years six months ten days of monarchy. (5) After this period, 235 years of Persian monarchy, and then 312 years eighteen days of Macedonian monarchy up to the ..
4 Ezra: Common Era begin ~AM 5560?
Julian Africanus' influential chronography from the 2nd century gave a somewhat similar number, of about 5,500 years from the creation until the time of Jesus. This is followed by Hippolytus of Rome, who wrote that there were 5,738 years from Adam until the 13th year of the reign of the emperor (Severus) Alexander, in 235 CE. (For Hippolytus Greek text: "Dies aber zusammengerechnet")
(Panodorus of Alexandria and Annianus of Alexandria, both around the early 5th century CE, give ~5,900 years from the creation up until the end of the 4th century: or, more specifically, 5,493 and 5,500 years up to Christ, respectively.) Syncellus goes as far as to pinpoint exactly "5,533 years and 40 days" from Adam to the ascension. (Also, the important Dionysius Exiguus follows suit.)
The 2nd century Patriarch of Antioch, Theophilus, challenges the chronology of the Greeks, who absurdly give the universe/earth a wildly exaggerated age of 150,000 years old – instead settling, as did his predecessors, for a period of approximately 5,700 years (5,698) from the creation until his current time (mid 2nd century). Cf. To Autolycus, 3.16, 26, 29; e.g.
I want to give you a more accurate account of the different historical periods, so that you may see that our teaching is not modern or fictitious (μυθώδης) but older and more true than the uncertain writings of poets and other authors who wrote in uncertainty. οἱ μὲν γὰρ τὸν κόσμον ἀγένητον εἰπόντες εἰς τὸ ἀπέραντον ἐχώρησαν, ἕτεροι δὲ γενητὸν φήσαντες εἶπον ὡς ἤδη μυριάδας ἐτῶν πεντεκαίδεκα ἐληλυθέναι καὶ τρισχίλια ἑβδομήκοντα πέντε ἔτη. ταῦτα μὲν οὖν Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Αἰγύπτιος ἱστορεῖ. Πλάτων δέ, ὁ δοκῶν Ἑλλήνων σοφώτερος γεγενῆσθαι, εἰς πόσην φλυαρίαν ἐχώρησεν! For some, maintaining that the world was uncreated, went into infinity; and others, asserting that it was created, said that already 153,075 years had passed. This is stated by Apollonius the Egyptian. And Plato, who is esteemed to have been the wisest of the Greeks, into what nonsense did he run?¨
Ὁμοῦ ἀπὸ κτίσεως κόσμου συνάγονται τὰ πάντα ἔτη εχϞε´ καὶ οἱ ἐπιτρέχοντες μῆνες καὶ ἡμέραι All the years from the creation of the world amount to a total of 5698 years, and the odd months and days.
Τῆς μὲν οὖν ἀρχαιότητος τῶν παρ' ἡμῖν πραγμάτων καὶ τῶν χρόνων τὸν πάντα ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὸ δύνατον οἶμαι τὰ νῦν ἀκριβῶς εἰρῆσθαι. εἰ γὰρ καὶ ἔλαθεν ἡμᾶς χρόνος, εἰ τύχοι εἰπεῖν ἔτη ν´ ἢ ρ´ ἢ καὶ ς´, οὐ μέντοι μυριάδες ἢ χιλιάδες ἐτῶν, καθὼς προειρήκασιν Πλάτων καὶ Ἀπολλώνιος καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ ψευδῶς ἀναγράψαντες. ὅπερ ἡμεῖς τὸ ἀκριβὲς ἴσως ἀγνοοῦμεν, ἁπάντων τῶν ἐτῶν τὸν ἀριθμόν, διὰ τὸ μὴ ἀναγεγράφθαι ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις τοὺς ἐπιτρέχοντας μῆνας καὶ ἡμέρας I think I have now, according to my ability, accurately discoursed both of the godlessness of your practices, and of the whole number of the epochs of history. For if even a chronological error has been committed by us, of, e.g., 50 or 100, or even 200 years, yet not of thousands and tens of thousands, as Plato and Apollonius and other mendacious authors have hitherto written. And perhaps our knowledge of the whole number of the years is not quite accurate, because the odd months and days are not set down in the sacred books.
for a recent study of Theophilus' chronography which demonstrates. how readily it conformed to the symmetries of eschatological calculations, see Oliver Nicholson, 'The Source of the Dates in Lactantius' Divine Institutes' Journal of Theological Studies, NS 36:2 (1985), pp.291-310. According to Grumel, Clement placed the Creation in 5600 BCE (Chronographie, p.24f). Martin Werner argues that the earliest Christian era was 6000 BCE (The Formation of Christian Dogma (London 1957) p.38).
Origen, in Contra Celsum (1.19-20), writes
...Celsus, secretly wishing to attack the Mosaic cosmogony which indicates that the world is not yet ten thousand years old but is much less than this (ὁ Κέλσος λεληθότως βουλόμενος διαβαλεῖν τὴν κατὰ Μωϋσέα κοσμοποιΐαν, ἐμφαίνοντα μηδέπω μυρίων ἐτῶν ἀριθμὸν ἔχειν τὸν κόσμον ἀλλὰ πολλῷ τούτου λειπόμενον), agrees with those who say that the world is uncreated, although he hides his real intention . . . Nevertheless unintentionally Celsus fell into proclaiming [as is truly the case] that the world is quite recent, and not even ten thousand years old
Some unverified stuff: Papias, Methodius, Commodianus, Melito?
Origen, A.D. 230 [sic: Tertullian], states that “our Lord descended from Heaven for the salvation of man, 6000 years after the Almighty had formed the first of the human race.” . . . Hesychius, a contemporary of Jerome, says, “the incarnation of the Redeemer took place nearly 6000 years from the foundation of the world.” Ambrose, bishop of Milan, A.D. 375, says, “but now more than 6000 years are counted from the foundation of the world.” Ephrem Syrus, A.D. 378, says, “the Saviour was to appear after 5500 years, [from creation,] to deliver man.” Augustine, A.D. 398, says, “since from the first man, 6000 years are not yet completed.” Chrysostom, his contemporary, says, “after 5000 years and more, Christ came as the substitute of our race.” Sulpicius Severus, A.D. 400, makes the date of the Nativity A.M. 5469, according to Clinton. Annianus A.D. 405, Syncellus A.D. 792, Eutychius A.D. 937, and a host of later writers, adopt the epoch A.M. 5500, following Africanus. . . . the Almighty had formed the first of the human race.” . . . and the meeting of the council, called “Synodus in Trullo,” A.D. 691, reckoned it A.M. 5508
(Elsewhere it's claimed more specifically that Hesychius calculated 5,967 years from Adam to the 42nd year of Augustine.) (For Sulpicius, "His last total is 4303 at the death of Sampson (I, 29, 8).") (Trullo: συνορῶμεν ὥστε τοὺς μὲν δυσί γάμοις περιπαρέντας, καὶ μέχρι τῆς πεντεκαιδεκάτης τοῦ διελθόντος Ἰανουαρίου μηνός, τῆς παρελθούσης τετάρτης Ἰνδικτιῶνος, ἔτους ἐξακισχιλιοστοῦ ἐκατοστοῦ ἐννάτου, δουλωθέντας τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, καὶ μὴ ἐκνῆψαι ταύτης προελομένους, καθαιρέσει κανονικῇ ὑποβαλεῖν: "we decree, that those who are involved in a second marriage, and have been slaves to sin up to the fifteenth of the past month of January, in the past fourth Indiction, the 6109th [6199th?] year, and have not resolved to repent of it, be subjected to canonical deposition." 6199 - 691 = 5508.) (See also on the Roman Martyrology below.)
Cyprian (early/mid 3rd century): Sex millia annorum iam paene complentur, ex quo hominem diabolus impugnat: "Almost six thousand years are now being fulfilled since the devil first attacked man." (Epistola ad Fortunatum de Exhortatione Martyrii 2) See more on Cyprian here
The apocryphal Apocalypse of Thomas (probably written somewhere from the 3rd or 4th century) forecasts an oddly specific 450 years between the ascension and the second coming. If the author thought that Jesus was born 5,500 years after the beginning, this would give an even 6,000 years from beginning to end. The gap of 50 years here (5,500 + 450 = 5,950) might be accounted for in light of the early tradition that Jesus lived to be 50. Irenaeus insists on this, "as the Gospel and all the elders who lived with John, the Lord's disciple, in Asia testify that John delivered this tradition to them.")
Eusebius, in his Chronicon, has 4,680 years from the creation until the second year of Darius (which is a chronological marker in Haggai 1.1 and Zechariah 1.1), or 520 BCE. Up unto the beginning of the Common Era, this is 5,200 years. (Syncellus writes that Eusebius erred in "counting only 5,526 years from Adam to the 20th year of Constantine." The first year of Constantine's reign was 306 CE.) Jerome followed suit here (technically 5,199 years), which was also taken up by Victor of Tunnana.
In the early 4th century, Lactantius affirmed that 'those who write about time teach us how many years are completed since the Creation, and although they vary..., all nevertheless expect not more than 200 years [until the completion of the 6000 years]
Plato et multi alii philosophorum, cum ignorarent originem rerum... Plato and many others of the philosophers, since they were ignorant of the origin of all things, and of that primal period at which the world was made, said that many thousands of ages had passed since this beautiful arrangement of the world was completed; and in this they perhaps followed the Chaldeans, who, as Cicero has related in his first book respecting divination, foolishly say that they possess comprised in their memorials four hundred and seventy thousand years; in which matter, because they thought that they could not be convicted, they believed that they were at liberty to speak falsely. But we, whom the Holy Scriptures instruct to the knowledge of the truth, know the beginning and the end of the world, respecting which we will now speak in the end of our work, since we have explained respecting the beginning in the second book. Therefore let the philosophers, who enumerate thousands of ages from the beginning of the world, know that the six thousandth year is not yet completed, and that when this number is completed the consummation must take place, and the condition of human affairs be remodeled for the better, the proof of which must first be related, that the matter itself may be plain. God completed the world and this admirable work of nature in the space of six days, as is contained in the secrets of Holy Scripture, and consecrated the seventh day, on which He had rested from His works. But this is the Sabbath-day, which in the language of the Hebrews received its name from the number, whence the seventh is the legitimate and complete number. For there are seven days, by the revolutions of which in order the circles of years are made up. . . .1
Hilarianus, ~397 CE: Jesus dies AM 5,530.
Augustine, City of God XII 11 (section titled De falsitate eius historiae, quae multa millia annorum praeteritis temporibus ascribit, "On the falseness of the history which ascribes many thousands of years tο times gone by"):
Fallunt eos etiam quaedam mendacissimae litterae, quas perhibent in historia temporum multa annorum milia continere, cum ex litteris sacris ab institutione hominis nondum completa annorum sex milia computemus. Vnde ne multa disputem quem ad modum illarum litterarum, in quibus longe plura annorum milia referuntur, uanitas refellatur et nulla in illis rei huius idonea reperiatur auctoritas
Such men are also misled by certain wholly untruthful writings which purport to contain the history of many thousands of years of time. For we compute from the sacred writings that six thousand years have not yet passed since the creation of man [ab institutione hominis]. Hence, the writings which make reference to far more thousands of years than there have been are vain, and contain no trustworthy authority on the subject.
(Compare Theophilus, "All the years from the creation of the world," also on Apollonius the Egyptian, etc.) 13:
hoc etiam de prima hominis conditione responderim, propter eos, qui similiter mouentur, cur homo per innumerabilia atque infinita retro tempora creatus non sit tamque sero sit creatus, ut minus quam sex milia sint annorum, ex quo esse coepisse in sacris litteris inuenitur. There are some people who complain when we claim that man was created so late. They say that he must have been created countless and infinite ages ago, and not, as is recorded in scripture, less than 6,000 years ago.
(Translations by Dyson) City of God XVIII 40 (section De Aegyptiorum mendacissima uanitate, quae antiquitati scientiae suae centum milia adscribit annorum).
Frustra itaque uanissima praesumtione garriunt quidam dicentes, ex quo Aegyptus rationem siderum conprehendit, amplius quam centum annorum milia numerari... Consequently, how utterly unconvincing is the presumptuous prattling of those who maintain that Egyptian astronomical science has a history of more than 100,000 years!…we know from Holy Writ…6,000 years have not yet elapsed from the days of Adam, the first man, should we not ridicule, rather than bother to refute, those who strive to convince us of a temporal duration so different and so utterly contrary to this established truth?…We, on the other hand, have the support of divine authority in the history of our religion. Accordingly, whatever in secular histories runs counter to it we do not hesitate to brand it as wholly false…. (transl. by Walsh)
XX: "six thousand years stretching from the creation of man" Genealogies in Genesis: "Whoever calls these facts into question undermines all that we believe, and his opinions should be resolutely cast out of the minds of the faithful" (De Gen. ad. Litt. 9.11.19) Elsewhere, Augustine:
if we look carefully into Church history, we find that the Apostle John died long before the completion of 5,500 years from the beginning of the human race
(To Hesychius, "On the End of the World") Mook:
Lest it be argued on the basis of Augustine’s statements that Adam was created less than 6,000 years ago but the rest of creation is much older than that, it should be remembered that Augustine believed that God created everything, at least seminally, in an instant
At the sack of Rome in 410. Augustine tells us that some exclaimed: 'Behold, from Adam all the years have passed, and behold, the 6000 years are completed ... and now comes the Day of Judgment' (Sermo 1 13, 8; PL 38 c.576).
Isidore of Pelusium (late 4th / early 5th): birth of Christ in AM 5,336 (purportedly)
Orosius, in the early 5th century: his Historiae adversus paganos "describes an ever more Christian, and hence improving world, aetate 5724" (Landes). Orosius on Phoroneus? Also
5 sunt autem ab Adam primo homine usque ad Ninum magnum ut dicunt regem, quando natus est Abraham... Now from Adam, the first man, to the King Ninus, so-called the 'Great,' when Abraham was born, 3,184 years passed, which either have been omitted or unknown by all historians. But from Ninus or Abraham to Caesar Augustus, that is, to the birth of Christ, which was in the forty-second year of the Caesar's rule, when the Gates of Janus were closed, for peace had been made with the Parthians and wars had ceased in the whole world, 2015 years have passed...
That AM II dominates every major and most minor 5th century chronologies attests to Augustine's and Jerome's success in changing Latin historiography.
Epiphanius, in the latter 4th century, places Jesus' birth in the 5509th year ("coincidentally with the 5509th year"). This is also reflected later:
The Chronicon Paschale uses a year 1 that began during 5510/9 BC (see Ch. 13). Later Byzantine chroniclers follow a system in which the year 1 corresponded to 5509/8 BC. (Mosshammer)
There's an interesting text in the Talmud: b. Sanhedrin 97b:
רב חנן בר תחליפא לרב יוסף 15 מצאתי אדם אחד ובידו מגילה אחת כתובה אשורית ולשון קדש אמרתי לו 16 זו מניין לך 17 אמר לי 18 לחיילות של רומי נשכרתי ובין גינזי רומי מצאתיה וכתוב בה 19 לאחר ד' אלפים ומאתים ותשעים ואחד שנה לבריאתו של עולם העולם יתום R. Hanan b. Tahlifa sent [word] to R. Joseph: I once met a man who possessed a scroll written in Hebrew in Assyrian characters.7 I said to him: 'Whence has this come to thee?' He replied, 'I hired myself as a mercenary in the Roman army, and found it amongst the Roman archives. In it is stated that four thousand, two hundred and thirty-one years after the creation the world will be orphaned.
[As to the years following,] some of them will be spent in the war of the great sea monsters,10 and some in the war of Gog and Magog, and the remaining [period] will be the Messianic era, whilst the Holy One, blessed be He, will renew his world only after seven thousand years.' R. Abba the son of Raba said: The statement was after five thousand years.
Irshai, “Dating the Eschaton":
We may loosely compare b. Sanh. 97b, where Elijah asserts to Rab Judah, the brother of R. Salia the pious, that a messianic era lasting one jubilee will begin after 84 jubilees (= 4116 or 4200 years, depending on whether a jubilee is reckoned as 49 or 50 years), making a total world age of 85 jubilees (= 4165 or 4250 years).182 Similarly, Eusebius’ Chronicle indicates that 29 ce (the year of Jesus’ death) was the ‘beginning of the 81st jubilee of the world according to the Hebrews’ (principium LXXXI iobelaei secundum Hebraeos),183 which for Eusebius may mark the beginning of the messianic era.184
Fulgentius (late 5th, early 6th c.):
Thus with our letters, if you count by them as far as the last one, z, the total comes to five hundred, whence twelve times five hundred shows the age of the existing world, but if twelve times twelve is taken it must show the span of human life; again, if you reckoned twelve times twenty-three, you would discover the number nine for the months and six for the days, the precise period for man as he comes forth from the womb, as taken from the inception of birth, whence also the span of death may be indicated.
. . .
Thus the first age of the world is to be reckoned from the first man, the unfortunate who scorned the Lord's decree
In the early 7th century, Isidore of Seville suggested creation in AM 5196 (AM 5210 as 56th year Augustus?) (Total 5857 years, up to 10th year of Recceswinth?)
Notes on Isidore: Tower of Babel built in AM 2643?; AM 3344: Jacob born, Argives begin; AM 3434: Joseph born, Phoroneus gives laws; AM 4044: Samson.
Later in the 7th century, Julian of Toledo: 5325 AM
The English saint/historian Bede (early 8th century) rolls things back by having 3,952 from creation to Christ. Of course this would set a certain precedent, leading to the well-known estimates (starting around the early Modern period) of 3,960 years by Luther (Supputatio annorum mundi), followed (more or less) by Kepler, Newton, and Ussher. (Also, as a fun note, in 1609 Thomas Lydiat arrived at Ussher's well known date of 4004 BCE, in his Emendatio temporum -- Ussher's wouldn't be published until ~1650.) Also, Maimonides and al-Biruni place the creation in approximately 3,760 BCE.
Hughes on Bede:
Bede, writing in the early part of the 8th century, calculated from the Vulgate that there were only 3952 years from creation to the birth of Christ. This caused Bede to be accused of heresy, but his chronology was subsequently adopted by the western church, particularly after the expected end of the world failed to materialize, and Bede's date for the creation of the world remained the accepted date for over eight centuries in the west.
Bede's famous involvement in a controversy surrounding the Vulgate chronology, which rejuvenated the world by more than 1200 years, has led ...
Di Segni, "The Use of Chronological Systems in Sixth-Eighth Centuries Palestine" Nicephorus (8th): creation in 5,700 BCE (purportedly). Further,
The Alexandrian Era of 25 March 5493 BC was adopted by church fathers such as Maximus the Confessor and Theophanes the Confessor,
9th-11th: the Annals of Hildesheim: origin of Egyptians in AM 2379? (Nahor?) (Bede: AM 1878: Assyrians; Belus... Nahor) Ekkehard of Aura: Argos Landes:
In the early 11th century CE, the rare historian to mention AM II, Ademar of Chabannes, denounced it as false.
Lambert of Saint-Omer (late 11th, early 12th):
Why did Lambert, upon adding his note from Isidore of Seville to his diagram, ''The Ages of the World until King Godfrey,'' decide to make the first Five Ages of history 41 years longer? Why did he demonstrate in the diagram that the ages had lasted for 5,217 years and then argue in the margins that they had endured for 5,258?
. . .
The number 3,342 is Lambert's own, for Orosius states clearly that 3,184 years passed between the creation of the world and Babylon's foundation.
Michael the Syrian (late 12th):
Quelques-uns fixent 5500 ans' depuis Adam jusqu'à la naissance de NotreSeigneur. Hippolyte, Jean2 et Mar Jacques, adoptent cela. Et de fait nous trouvons qu'Eusèbe l'accepte. Dans un autre endroit il dit qu'il y a eu 5232 ans depuis Adam jusqu'à la Passion de Notre-Seigneur. D'autres disent : 5320; Africanus: 5532; les Hébreux : 4000; les Samaritains : 4365; les Syriens : 4156; et selon le calcul admis par plusieurs : 5519.
Alfonso X of Castile commissioned the Alfonsine tables, composed of astronomical data based on observation, from which the date of the creation has been calculated to be either 6984 BC or 6484 BC
Giles of Lessines (13th):
discusses no less than nine different estimates on the basis of the Hebrew version alone and nine further ones for the [LXX]. See Giles . . . Summa de temporibus... (Nothaft)
Martin of Opava (13th):
quoting Orosius, reckons 4484 years from the Creation to the foundation of Rome, and 715 from the foundation of Rome to the birth of Christ. Both systems amount to 5199 years, “annos bis centum minus uno millia
De parte del rey, don Fernando, y de su hija, doña Juana, reina de Castilla y León, domadores de pueblos bárbaros, nosotros, sus siervos, os notificamos y os hacemos saber, como mejor podemos, que Dios nuestro Señor, uno y eterno, creó el cielo y la tierra, y un hombre y una mujer, de quien nos y vosotros y todos los hombres del mundo fueron y son descendientes y procreados, y todos los que después de nosotros vinieran. Mas por la muchedumbre de la generación que de éstos ha salido desde hace cinco mil y hasta más años que el mundo fue creado, fue necesario que los unos hombres fuesen por una parte y otros por otra, y se dividiesen por muchos reinos y provincias, que en una sola no se podían sostener y conservar. On behalf of the King, Don Fernando, and of Doña Juana I, his daughter, Queen of Castille and León, subduers of the barbarous nations, we their servants notify and make known to you, as best we can, that the Lord our God, Living and Eternal, created the Heaven and the Earth, and one man and one woman, of whom you and we, all the men of the world at the time, were and are descendants, and all those who came after and before us. But, on account of the multitude which has sprung from this man and woman in the five thousand years since the world was created, it was necessary that some men should go one way and some another, and that they should be divided into many kingdoms and provinces, for in one alone they could not be sustained.
Roman Martyrology (Martyrologium Romanum), ~1580-1590, for Christmas Eve:
Anno a creatione mundi, quando in principio Deus creavit caelum et terram, quinquies millesimo centesimo nonagesimo nono... In the 5199th year of the creation of the world, from the time when in the beginning God created heaven and earth; from the flood, the 2957th year; from the birth of Abraham, the 2015th year; from Moses and the going-out of the people of Israel from Egypt, the 1510th year; from the anointing of David as king, the 1032nd year; in the 65th week according to the prophecy of Daniel; in the 194th Olympiad; from the founding of the city of Rome, the 752nd year; in the 42nd year of the rule of Octavian Augustus
(For this date, cf. Eusebius and Jerome.) Mary of Agreda (17th century), from her Mistica Ciudad de Dios (3.138):
Sucedió esto en viernes á 25 de Marzo al romper del alba, ó á los crepúsculos de la luz, á la misma hora que fué formado nuestro primer padre Adán, y en el año de la creación del mundo de 5199, como lo cuenta la Iglesia romana en el Martirologio, gobernada por el Espíritu Santo. Esta cuenta es la verdadera y cierta; y así se me ha declarado, preguntándolo por orden de la obediencia. Y conforme á esto el mundo fué criado por el mes de Marzo, que corresponde á su principio de la creación [Jesus' was conceived] in springtime on the twenty-fifth of March, at break or dawning of the day, in the same hour, in which our first father Adam was made and in the year of the creation of the world 5199, which agrees also with the count of the Roman Church in her Martyrology under the guidance of the Holy Ghost. This reckoning is the true and certain one, as was told me, when I inquired at command of my superiors. Conformable to this the world was created in the month of March, which corresponds to the beginning of creation.
Cregan-Reid on the discovery of Gilgamesh:
Mary Bennett, novelist and reviewer, excitably reported the importance of Smith’s discoveries and wrote two articles for the Dublin University Magazine on their implications for contemporary understandings of history: ‘the dynasty that preceded that event [the deluge] would place the commencement of the historical period about B.C. 5150. The legend of the Flood is much older than that, for it was composed in the mythological period.’
Calvin: "the world, now declining to its ultimate end, has not yet attained six thousand years." (Institutes 1:14:1)
Profane men, I admit in the matter of predestination abruptly seize upon something to carp, rail, bark or scoff at. But if their shamelessness deters us, we shall have to keep secret the chief doctrines of the faith, almost none of which they or their like leave untouched by blasphemy. An obstinate person would be no less insolently puffed up on hearing that within the essence of God there are three Persons than if he were told that God foresaw what would happen to man when he created him. And they will not refrain from guffaws when they are informed that but little more than five thousand years have passed since the creation of the universe, for they ask why God's power was idle or asleep for so long. (Institutes 3:21:4)
During his Leiden years he completed his magnum opus, the Thesaurus temporum (1606). This hefty tome offered a precise date for every major event in Christian history: the Creation, Fall, Flood, Tower of Babel, Joseph’s flight to Egypt, and all the other episodes in the history of God’s chosen people. In itself this was nothing new, as chronologies had been compiled on the basis of the Bible before, but they raised problems on a number of points. The innovative feature of Scaliger’s approach was his use of external resources such as astronomical calculations of solar years and above all non-biblical sources to resolve inconsistencies.
According to one of the non-Christian histories studied by Scaliger, the Tomoi by the Egyptian priest Manetho (third century BC), which he regarded as authentic and very reliable, the dynasties of the pharaohs went back centuries before the date on which Scaliger had determined the completion of the Creation (25 October 3950 BC). Were there people before Adam? Scaliger wisely left the explosive implications of his discovery untouched, but his emphasis on the equiponderance of biblical and non-biblical histories was bound to have far-reaching consequences at points where they contradicted one another.
The Groningen historian Ubbo Emmius (1547–1625) stated that the dynasties of the pharaohs preceded the Flood, though without mentioning Scaliger by name.239
Ted Davis: "nearly all Christians in the 17th century believed the Earth and the universe were created around 4000 BC."
Richard Landes, "Lest the Millennium be Fulfilled: Apocalyptic Expectations and the Pattern of Western Chronography" ("Hippolytus of Rome and Julius Africanus introduced the first well-documented Christian chronology (AM I), which placed the Incarnation 5500 years after the Creation." And "About 303 CE Eusebius argued, on the basis of massive archival work, that Jesus had begun his ministry 5228 years after the creation." Eusebius thereby rejuvenated the world by almost exactly three centuries, and dated his own time to c.5500 AM II.)
McCarthy, “Bede's Primary Source for the Vulgate Chronology in His Chronicles in De Temporibus and De Temporum Ratione"
Hughes, Secrets of the Times: Myth and History in Biblical Chronology (Esp. "From P to Ussher")
Gerhard Larsson, The Secret System: A Study in the Chronology of the Old Testament
Grabbe, "Chronography in Hellenistic Jewish Historiography"
the volume Julius Africanus und die christliche Weltchronik
Adler, Time Immemorial: Archaic History and Its Sources in Christian Chronography from Julius Africanus to George Syncellus
Rest of post continued here (mainly bibliographical stuff)
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